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Pictured: Tribal leaders and US officials, including General William Tecumseh Sherman, gather at Fort Laramie, Wyoming in 1868 for treaty negotiations. Image credits to the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.
On April 29th, 1868, the Fort Laramie Treaty was signed. We acknowledge that this treaty (which recognized the Black Hills as part of the "Great Sioux Reservation" and intended for the exclusive use of the Lakota People) was later broken by the US Government.
Forged in the wake of massacres conducted by the US Army against Indigenous peoples, increased movement of settlers along the Bozeman Trail, and successful Native resistance during Red Cloud's War, the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 defined land boundaries for the Oceti Sakowin (Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota) as well as the Crow, Northern Arapaho and Northern Cheyenne, protecting the tribes' sovereignty over much of their traditional lands. However, the treaty also instituted several assimilationist policies on behalf of the US government - policies which contributed to a loss of cultural lifeways that continues to impact Native communities up to the present day. Several Lakota leaders of the time, including Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, opposed the treaty for its establishment of these policies and for its restriction of hunting lands.
Pictured: Page 1 of the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie. Image credits to the National Archives collection.
Turmoil drawing forth from this forced assimilation brewed on the Plains, and the arrival of prospectors and US Army officials in search of gold brought these tensions to a head in the mid-1870s. Lakota and Cheyenne warriors launched attacks on settlers flooding into treaty lands to seek their fortune, leading to an 1875 federal decree which forced the tribes onto small reservations.
The following year, General Custer and the US Seventh Cavalry were routed by Lakota, Dakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho forces at the Battle of the Little Bighorn - known as Peji Sla/the Battle of the Greasy Grass in Lakota. In 1877, an act of Congress redrew the lines of tribal territories, permanently confined tribes to reservations, seized the Black Hills for the United States, and allowed the federal government to build roads through treaty lands. In less than ten years, the United States had reneged in multiple ways on the Fort Laramie Treaty - a document which, by the US constitution’s own definition, was intended to be respected as the supreme law of the land.
In response to this violation of treaty terms, the tribes of the Oceti Sakowin entered into legal proceedings against the federal government in the early 20th century. The case culminated in a 1980 decision by the Supreme Court declaring the US seizure of the Black Hills illegal and offering tribes $100 million for the land. The tribes of the Oceti Sakowin have continually rejected this offer and have asserted that the sacred lands were never for sale.
Despite federal abrogation of the agreement, the articles of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 have been cited throughout the 20th and 21st centuries: activists laid claim to Alcatraz Island in 1969, citing a treaty stipulation which promised unused federal land to tribes, called the Treaty to mind during the Dakota Access Pipeline protests, and most recently presented an eviction notice to the Grand Gateway Hotel in Rapid City, SD which cited tribal rights to prevent settler encroachment on treaty lands. Organizers continue to push the federal government to honor the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 and all treaties between tribal nations and the United States.
Additional resources on the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 listed below.
On the Treaty and its surrounding history:
Full text of the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie from the National Museum of the American Indian:
“In 1868, Two Nations Made a Treaty, the U.S. Broke It and Plains Indian Tribes are Still Seeking Justice” from Smithsonian Magazine:
“Fort Laramie Treaty: Case Study” an interactive online exhibit from the National Museum of the American Indian: https://americanindian.si.edu/nk360/plains-treaties-fort-laramie/
“The Fort Laramie National Historic Site and 150th Anniversary of the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie,” a documentary special from Wyoming PBS: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Bf83JLfmZU
On the legal battle to honor the Treaty:
A Summary of the 1980 Supreme Court decision in the case ‘ United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians’:
“Sioux Win $105 Million” from The Washington Post:
“Why the Sioux Are Refusing $1.3 Billion” from PBS NewsHour:
On the document’s continued significance from the 1960s to the present-day:
“The Native Occupation of Alcatraz—Looking Back 50 Years Later” from the Pima County Public Library:
“Broken Promises: Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Cites History of Government Betrayal in Pipeline Fight” from ABC News https://abcnews.go.com/US/broken-promises-standing-rock-sioux-tribe-cites-history/story?id=43698346
“Tribal Leaders of the Oceti Sakowin Deliver Notice of Trespass and Eviction Notice to Grand Gateway Hotel” from NDN Collective: https://ndncollective.org/tribal-leaders-of-the-oceti-sakowin-deliver-notice-of-trespass-and-eviction-notice-to-grand-gateway-hotel/?fbclid=IwAR29n6ZUfO3jOFW1fFECSfoe_6ogImtyfKMbn2E0IsHRlilXv-wiIg9YDhE
This blog post is a part of our Reconciliation through Education series. To learn more about this and other issues related to the Tipi Raisers mission, please email email@example.com to sign up for our newsletter.
Sources include: Resources from the National Museum of the American Indian, Indian Country Today, Smithsonian Magazine, & Wyoming PBS
The inaugural Indigenous Wisdom Summit/Four Directions Ride will make its debut in 2022. The LakotaRide (which has been retired for practical and philosophical reasons, explained below) was the predecessor to this event.
The LakotaRide began in Breckenridge, Colorado in 2014 with just two riders going up and over the 14,000 foot Continental Divide and ending in Boulder a week later. It was initially conceived of in order to bring awareness and raise funds to bring building materials salvaged from the original Breckenridge Nordic Lodge to address substandard housing issues on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
For the five years following this epic launch of the LakotaRide, it gained momentum, riders, supporters and miles and became our signature event! Each of those five years, the LakotaRide moved across the heavily populated front range of Colorado and crossed over into the wide open spaces of Wyoming and Nebraska before ending, twenty two days and over 400 miles later, on Pine Ridge. The friendships forged, selfless generosity exhibited and depth of community established on these LakotaRides will forever be a gift in the lives of those involved.
In 2020 we commemorated the previous rides and riders through our virtual event - The Spirit of the LakotaRide. Both 2020 and 2021 Rides were cancelled due to the Covid pandemic.
In those years, we have had time to look back and to look forward. As the small nonprofit has developed, we now envision an evolved signature event with lessons learned from past LakotaRides.
Practically speaking, we know what goes into these multi-state, multi-week rides and quite simply, our Ride team is not getting any younger. The sheer miles on horseback and the physicality involved to execute an event such as this takes a tremendous toll over time.
And from a philosophical standpoint, we have been approached more and more from other Tribes in the region - all of whom we're eager to partner with. And we understand that they, like the Lakota, have a rich culture and history that we can all learn from. Thus, the Indigenous Wisdom Summit with the ceremonial Four Directions Ride was born!
In the spring of 1864, thousands of Navajo People were removed from their homelands and forced onto The Long Walk. The four-year internment they would face at the conclusion of the walk marked the darkest period of Navajo history and the beginning of a generational trauma that echoes into the present-day.
Pictured above: Diné women and children gathered at Bosque Redondo 1864-1868. Photograph from the Collection of John Gaw Meem. Credits to the Palace of the Governors Photo Archives and the National Museum of the American Indian.
While the decade preceding the 1860s had been characterized by war in the Southwest between encroaching US forces and Navajo (Diné) warriors, military incursions into Navajo lands increased amidst the Civil War. In 1863, then-territorial governor of New Mexico General James H. Carleton ordered a military campaign to drive the Navajo out of their traditional lands. Overseeing this campaign was Colonel Kit Carson and his 1st New Mexico Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, who invaded the Canyon de Chelly in Diné lands on January 12th, 1864. The troops set fire to hundreds of acres of trees, crops, and hogans (traditional Navajo dwellings), slaughtered livestock, poisoned water wells, and killed Diné men, women, and children as they swept through the Canyon.
With little choice, thousands of Navajo living in the region were forced to surrender to Carson and his regiment and walk to the Bosque Redondo Reservation, located hundreds of miles away in New Mexico. Throughout the spring of 1864, large groups of Navajo continued to be sent against their will to Bosque Redondo, referred to in the Navajo language as Hwéeldi. Hundreds died of exposure, murder by US forces, and other causes during the journey, which came to be known as the Long Walk of the Navajo.
Pictured: A US Army guard stands armed over a group of Navajo imprisoned at Bosque Redondo, 1864-1868. Photo credits to the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center.
Those who had been forced onto the Long Walk were held at a prison camp on the Bosque Redondo Reservation from 1864 to 1868 by US soldiers. Conditions on the reservation were dire for the Diné and the hundreds of Mescalero Apache whom had also been forced into the camp- almost a third of the over 8,000 Navajo held there had died before the tribe was able to return to their homelands in 1868. According to Navajo oral tradition, it was the Diné women at Bosque Redondo who were able to convince camp commissioners to allow their people to return home.
Pictured: The Bosque Redondo Memorial at Fort Sumner, New Mexico. The architecture of the building was inspired by Apache tipis and Navajo hogans. Photo credits to Friends of the Bosque Redondo Memorial.
Though 158 years have passed since the start of the Long Walk, its impact persists for Navajo people. Researchers have explained that the challenges of poverty, addiction, and mental health crises faced by Diné communities today are rooted in the generational trauma of the Long Walk. But in spite of these challenges and the painful memory of the Bosque Redondo era, the legacy of the Long Walk also calls to mind the resilience of the Navajo people as they stood strong against the attempted eradication of their land, their culture, and their lives.
Additional resources on the Long Walk of the Navajo, the Bosque Redondo era, and the modern-day impact of the Long Walk listed below.
On the history of the wars leading up to the removal of the Navajo from their traditional lands, the Long Walk, and the Bosque Redondo era:
A brief history of the Long Walk from Partnership with Native Americans (PWNA):
“Long Walk: Tears of the Navajo” a documentary from PBS Utah and the Bosque Redondo Memorial:
Virtual exhibits from the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian on the Long Walk and the Bosque Redondo Reservation: https://americanindian.si.edu/nk360/navajo/long-walk/long-walk.cshtml
“The Navajo Nation's Own Trail Of Tears” from NPR:
On the legacy of the Long Walk and the resilience of the Navajo Nation today:
“Impact of the Long Walk Still Felt 150 Years Later” from Arizona Public Radio:
“150 Years After the Long Walk” from New Mexico Magazine:
“The Navajo Nation Treaty of 1868 Lives On at the American Indian Museum” from Smithsonian Magazine:
“Hwéeldi at 150” from the Navajo Times: https://navajotimes.com/reznews/hweeldi-150/
This blog post is a part of our Reconciliation through Education series. To learn more about this and other issues related to the Tipi Raisers mission, email firstname.lastname@example.org to sign up for our newsletter.
Sources for this blog post include: Resources on this topic from the National Museum of the American Indian, Indian Country Today, NPR, Partnership With Native Americans (PWNA), Arizona Public Radio, Smithsonian Magazine, New Mexico Magazine, the Navajo Times, and the Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes, 1850-1890 by Gregory Michno.
44 years ago this month, Indigenous activists began a cross-country journey on foot to defend treaty rights.
In the wake of the federal crackdown on Indigenous activism that characterized the late 1960s and early 1970s, eleven bills which sought to restrict the rights guaranteed to tribes and tribal members in treaties were introduced in Congress. In response, Native leaders mobilized activists to set out on The Longest Walk - a nearly-3,000 mile journey of nonviolent resistance to threats against tribal sovereignty. Symbolizing the forced removal of Indigenous Peoples from their traditional lands throughout history, the Walk began on February 11th, 1978 with the aim of calling attention to the proposed bills and the ongoing injustices faced by Native communities.
Thousands of Indigenous people and supporters participated in the five-month walk from San Francisco to Washington D.C. Along the way, organizers engaged in teach-ins in towns across the country to raise public awareness around Indigenous cultures, broken treaties, and the continued persecution of Native peoples. Upon the Walk's arrival to the nation's Capital on July 15th, 1978, tribal elders and movement leaders met with government officials to discuss the proposed legislation. All eleven bills which the Walk had protested were subsequently defeated in Congress. While The Longest Walk was the final major event of the American Indian Movement (AIM), its legacy continues to inspire Native advocacy today.
Pictured: A tipi sits opposite the White House as some 30,000 demonstrators gather in the Capital at the close of The Longest Walk. Photo credits to Daniel Luna, Roots Of Plenty and Plenty International.
The Longest Walk is not the only major AIM demonstration with a February anniversary- Sunday, February 27th marks 49 years since the occupation of Wounded Knee by the American Indian Movement.
Often referred to as Wounded Knee II, the occupation began after the failed impeachment of then-chairman of the Oglala Sioux Tribe, Richard “Dick” Wilson. Wilson's leadership was divisive on the reservation, stoking tensions between mixed-heritage, culturally-assimilated Oglalas such as himself and more traditional Oglala people living on Pine Ridge. These tensions, combined with conditions of poverty and racism faced by tribal members and the ongoing failure of the US Government to honor treaties, came to a head as 200 American Indian Movement members and Oglala Lakota activists entered and occupied a trading post in Wounded Knee on the evening of February 27th. After news of the occupation reached authorities, federal marshals and FBI agents began to surround the area. The ensuing armed conflict between protestors and federal forces would last 71 days.
Demonstrators and federal agents alike sustained injuries amidst regular exchanges of gunfire, and two Native activists were killed over the course of the conflict, which came to an end on May 8th, 1973. Dick Wilson remained in power as tribal chairman until 1976, and the years following the occupation, referred to by some as the "Reign of Terror," were characterized by retaliation from Wilson and his private police force against those connected to the American Indian Movement and the siege at Wounded Knee. Dozens of murders from this era remain unsolved today.
Pictured: An armed protester guards a checkpoint at Wounded Knee during the 1973 occupation. Photo credits to NPR and the Associated Press
Pansy Weasel Bear, treasured friend and partner of the Tipi Raisers, suffered the loss of her brother during this period of violence. We recently spoke with Pansy about what life on Pine Ridge was like at the time of the occupation and the years that followed:
"I would go with my older sister to AIM gatherings, rallies. I used to think it was fun; I didn't realize it was dangerous." Pansy was around 12 years old at the time of the occupation of Wounded Knee. Her parents, she explained, used to cook meals for AIM supporters late at night during the occupation. AIM members would quietly enter their home, retrieve the food, and carry it back to Wounded Knee to feed the activists, whose access to food was limited due to the federal blockade surrounding them. Following the murder of her brother, she recalls pleading with her father to let she and her siblings attend the funeral. Her father had believed it would be too dangerous for them to accompany him due to the tense atmosphere amidst the conflict between AIM supporters and Wilson's private police, but ultimately allowed them to go.
When her family returned from the funeral the next evening, her father noticed blood stains across the door knob and doorway of their home; a woman had been murdered nearby, and her killer must have attempted to enter the home while escaping. In another incident, Pansy's father was accosted at work by supporters of Wilson: "They broke three of his fingers and said 'let that be a reminder that you don’t support the American Indian Movement. We know where you live, we know you’re supporting AIM, and we’ll come get you.'"
In order to keep his family safe, Pansy’s father trained her and her siblings to handle rifles and had the children practice an emergency escape plan, should they be attacked at home in the midst of the turmoil on the reservation. On one particular evening, the plan which they had repeatedly rehearsed had to be rapidly put into action. "One night cars were flying toward our house and that was different. [...] I told my sister, 'it's time to go!'" Pansy, still a young child at the time, followed the escape plan down to the letter, retrieving the rifle and ammunition her father had carefully trained her to use, escorting her siblings to the bunker near their home, and firing into the sky to scare away the people who had begun breaking into the house.
It was a time of extreme turmoil and loss for tribal members on Pine Ridge, but the legacy of the Wounded Knee Occupation and the American Indian Movement lives on today. The siege at Wounded Knee had opened the eyes of the world to broken treaties, the continued oppression of Indigenous Peoples, and the resilience of Native communities. On the lasting impact of AIM and the activists at Wounded Knee, Pansy expressed: "They fought for our rights to be recognized and to be treated as people.”
We are immensely grateful for Pansy and her willingness to share these powerful stories. It is a privilege to be able to hear and learn from firsthand accounts of this deeply important history.
Pictured: Tipi Raisers’ Tokala Society volunteer and dear friend, Pansy Weasel Bear.
Additional resources on the American Indian Movement, the Longest Walk, and the Occupation of Wounded Knee listed below.
On the American Indian Movement:
“The radical history of the Red Power movement's fight for Native American sovereignty” from National Geographic:
A comprehensive digital exhibit on the American Indian Movement from the Libraries at the University of Georgia:
A collection of primary sources on the American Indian Movement from Christopher Newport University:
On The Longest Walk:
“Native Americans walk from San Francisco to Washington, D.C. for U.S. civil rights, 1978” a case study of The Longest Walk from the Global Nonviolent Action Database:
“The Longest Walk 1978” from Roots of Plenty: https://rootsofplenty.org/stories/the-longest-walk-1978/
“Longest Walk II reaches Washington” from Indian Country Today:
On the Occupation of Wounded Knee:
Episode 5: Wounded Knee of We Shall Remain | American Experience from PBS:
“Native History: AIM Occupation of Wounded Knee Begins” from Indian Country Today:
“Occupy Wounded Knee: A 71-Day Siege and a Forgotten Civil Rights Movement” from The Atlantic:
Sources for this blog post include: Resources on these topics from Indian Country Today, the National Library of Medicine's Native Voices Initiative, Histories of the National Mall, Plenty International, the Global Nonviolent Action Database, the Willson Center Digital Humanities Lab, PBS, NPR, the Atlantic, the Zinn Education Project, and MPR News.
In 1971, Elton John and Bernie Taupin wrote “Indian Sunset,” a song about a young warrior in the latter part of the 18th century who was slowly watching his “People being crushed” – as the Europeans and new Americans inexorably and overwhelmingly moved across and invaded the continent. The song follows the warrior, on horseback, and his small family as they see the bison disappear, their People lose hope and pride and their way of life become overrun by the wave of invaders coming to chase “hills of gold.” He searches for his ancestors’ help, his chiefs and the lands that give healing water. The song makes clear the desperation, futility and crushing of the Soul that must have been evident for some – and certainly were for the protagonist of the song – during this time in history.
It is not the first time – and clearly won’t be the last – that a People, a warrior and his family, a way of life and a culture have been threatened by an invasion, another tribe, a Power or a change in history. Natural occurrences have also shifted and threatened humanity, and indeed all living life, in similarly cataclysmic ways for thousands . . . . even millions, of years.
The current pandemic, which stubbornly persists, could arguably be seen as a possible harbinger of similar times. In the same way, and almost inconceivably, there are reasonable arguments now being made in this modern time, that a second American Civil War is . . . . . conceivable (not likely perhaps, but . . . . conceivable?!). Melting glacier shelves, virtual infernos that are anything but virtual, Texas-sized “islands” of toxic plastic floating in the middle of the planet . . . . perhaps this is the sort of seemingly unstoppable destruction and finality that the warrior saw in that Indian Sunset.
Wise Elders from Indigenous Peoples all over the planet used to guide their People through times like this with hard-earned and time-tested wisdom. Lakota wisdom. Navajo wisdom. Hopi wisdom. Aboriginal wisdom. Minoan, Inuit, Caucasus, Saami, Mayan, Mbenga, Bedouin wisdom. From all over the world. From all races. From every corner of the globe. The wisdom from each of our ancient ancestors was available to guide and inform those who were – and are – willing to listen.
We are approaching two years of exceptionally challenging times for many of our families, for the relatives, friends and volunteers with whom we work, play, ride and travel with – and, indeed, for our organization as a whole. How does a small non-profit with limited resources continue to carry out its already complicated and challenging mission when the volunteers that are its lifeblood are literally threatened by a pandemic? How does a community such as Ti Ikciya Pa Slata Pi (The Tipi Raisers) in the best of times navigate an effective way through the trauma, historical trauma, mistrust, remoteness and depth of need that are sometimes seemingly insurmountable hurdles to carrying out our goals and intentions? During a pandemic with its economic challenges and also a time when many of our long standing institutions and communities are now under attack, the mission becomes layered in even deeper levels of complexity and challenge.
And so, we have learned again to listen to Indigenous wisdom and to allow it to inform our modern reality. The Lakota have a word, “wowancin tanke,” that roughly translates into “perserverance”. A Lakota elder describing that word summons up the image of the bison turning to face the incoming blizzard, instead of running from it as the domesticated cow does.
Photo Credit: Barbara Edit (Gerlach) Photography
A Hopi storyteller tells of how the omnipresent crows circling their villages were the court jesters of the People, reminding them with their “Caw!! Caw!!” of the absurdity in which they were carrying on in their daily human lives.
The Papuan of New Guinea – and Indigenous Peoples from South America, Africa, Australia and other continents also – all taught their warriors through the scarification of their young men’s bodies -- of the value of struggle, sacrifice and connection to God, Spirit, the Unknowable.
The Christians, Buddhists, Native Americans and Indigenous Peoples from virtually every corner of the Earth taught about, knew and unfailingly rested on the foundation of disciplined, humble and consistent prayer – similarly through the burning of a wide variety of plants, incense, fire. Wocekiye, the Lakota call it (“crying out to the Sacred”); “Precatio”, the Christians call it; “Tefliah” (Hebrew); “Sodizon” (Navajo); “Inua” (Inuit).
Taupin and John wrote their beautiful and mournful song from their perspectives and understanding as English storytellers. And so, perhaps they miscalculated the perseverance, patience and resilience of the American Indians. From that perspective, their warrior gives his life and his People die. In reality, however, we know that was not how the story unfolded over time. Native American cultures and ways of life have, in fact, endured and will endure to inform and benefit the Modern World, as will most Indigenous teachings . . . . for those willing to listen and learn. In that way, history is written over generations, not in headlines and moments of time. It is more important than ever to pay homage to, and honor all ancestral wisdom. To trust in their truth and take comfort in their wisdom.
And so, as we look ahead to 2022, we envision navigating these difficult and challenging times - in community with you - and leaning into Indigenous wisdom from around the world to guide us.
There is much to look forward to in the year ahead! While a work in progress, our calendar is already filling up with Gen7 gatherings and with opportunities for all generations to be in service and community with one another. And we look with eager anticipation to share information with you - as we have it - about the development of a more accessible and sustainable infrastructure to support and expand our activities and services.
We are grateful for our community around the world - for your ongoing support – in the myriad of ways in which it is offered. For that too is a lesson from those who walked through difficult times in the past: We are so much stronger when we stay together in community and family.
Wishing you and yours peace and health in the New Year!
Waylon Belt riding Crazy Horse on 2018 Tipi Raiser's Ride
While joy and holiday merriment may define November and December for many, the season is accompanied by the anniversaries of several massacres against Native peoples and a spirit of somber remembrance for the Indigenous victims of violence at the hands of the US Government.
In Colorado, November 29th marked 157 years since the Sand Creek Massacre and a chance to reflect on the injustices, past and present, faced by Native communities.
Violence and discrimination against Indigenous people in Colorado territory had heightened in the months leading up to the 1864 massacre after then-territorial Governor John Evans made two proclamations calling for the forced relocation of tribes and the killing of any Indigenous person deemed “hostile” by settlers.
After moving to the land area designated by treaties, a camp of 750 Cheyenne and Arapaho people was attacked by Col. John Chivington and the Third Colorado Cavalry. The Cavalry killed hundreds in the encampment - primarily elders, women, and children - and committed countless other atrocities during the massacre.
In the days that followed, the troops responsible for the mass murder rode through the streets of Denver carrying body parts and stolen items, which were then displayed for years in Denver's City Hall. The loss of life at Sand Creek- including the killings of 13 Cheyenne chiefs, one Arapaho chief, and four Arapaho headmen - disrupted the passage of traditional knowledge and had a significant impact on Cheyenne and Arapaho cultural lifeways and social structures.
Pictured: A sign at the site of the Sand Creek Massacre in southeast Colorado. Photo credits to Quentin Young/Colorado Newsline.
Just as November brought forth reminders of the ongoing legacy of violence against Native peoples, the month of December also carries an obligation to reflect on the brutal history of massacres carried out by the federal government in Indigenous communities.
On December 26th, 1862, 38 Dakota men were hanged in Mankato, Minnesota - the largest mass execution in US History. The hangings were carried out in the aftermath of the US Dakota War of 1862. The conflict, which was precipitated by increased restriction of Dakota lands and the failure of the US Government to provide promised rations to the Dakota, had broken out following heightened violent interactions between Native people and white settlers across Minnesota. As casualties mounted on both sides and the 37-day war came to a close, 2,000 Dakota were taken into custody by U.S. Colonel Henry H. Sibley.
Trials for the captured Dakota were carried out by a US military commission over just 42 days from September to November 1862. 303 Dakota men were sentenced to death. Though President Lincoln commuted the death sentences of 265 warriors, stating “I could not afford to hang men for votes,” he ultimately approved of and ordered the execution of 38 Dakota men convicted by the commission.
Historians and legal experts have since criticized the military tribunals, citing language barriers, lack of access to defense counsel, and biased decision-making as factors which decreased the legitimacy of the proceedings. Two of the 38 individuals killed are now understood to have been executed by mistake. Two additional Dakota leaders were executed by federal order in 1865 for their roles in the US Dakota War; they are now remembered alongside the men hanged in 1862 as the Dakota 38 + 2.
Pictured: An 1884 painting by J. Thullen depicting the execution of the Dakota 38 in Mankato, Minnesota. Image credits to the Minnesota Historical Society and MPR News
December also calls to mind the painful legacy of the Wounded Knee Massacre.
Amid the Ghost Dance movement, broken treaties, and the assassination of Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull by Indian Agency Police, Chief Spotted Elk and his band of Mniconjou Lakota sought refuge on the Pine Ridge Reservation in late December, 1890. The group were eventually intercepted and escorted by US Army troops to camp at Wounded Knee Creek on December 28th.
The next day, the Seventh Cavalry began to confiscate weapons from Spotted Elk’s band, and a gun was suddenly discharged. Soldiers then opened fire on the camp. Several soldiers fired Hotchkiss guns indiscriminately on the encampment; others chased and hunted down Lakota women and children fleeing the scene. At least 300 Lakota men, women, and children were killed during the massacre, including Spotted Elk. 20 of the US soldiers involved were awarded the Medal of Honor for their roles in the killing. The medals have yet to be revoked by the federal government to this day.
We spoke to an elder from the Wounded Knee community this week about the 1890 massacre and its lasting impact. “My ancestors couldn’t comprehend it…I still can’t,” he said of the violence. His great-great grandfather was wounded during the massacre but survived after taking refuge in a nearby canyon.
“The massacre itself has a generational trauma effect, which I saw in my elders before they passed on.” He explained that the mass killing at Wounded Knee sowed discord in the community and led to the near destruction of the Lakota language. He also expressed that the massacre contributed to the boarding school system, with authorities employing tactics of abuse and assimilation against Indigenous children in an effort to destroy the possibility of future resistance. But amidst this traumatic legacy, the elder emphasized prayer and the hope for the future he sees in the children of the community. He asked that people remember the children in their prayers on December 29th, the 131st anniversary of the massacre.
Above all, he wants to ensure that Wounded Knee 1890 is never forgotten:
“Remember Cankpe Opi Wakpala 1890.”
Above: An excerpt from Tom Hollow Horn's talk on the history of Wounded Knee, originally streamed on the Tipi Raisers Facebook page in summer 2020
Additional resources on the Sand Creek Massacre, the Dakota 38 +2, and the 1890 Massacre at Wounded Knee listed below.
On the Sand Creek Massacre:
"THIS DAY IN HISTORY: November 29, 1864 – 230 Cheyenne & Arapaho Massacred at Sand Creek" from Native News Online:
Resources from the Sand Creek Massacre Foundation: https://www.sandcreekmassacrefoundation.org/history
"Colorado Experience: Sand Creek Massacre," a one-hour documentary from PBS on the history of Evans' proclamations and the Sand Creek Massacre, available to watch for free at the following link:
On the execution of the Dakota 38 + 2:
"The Traumatic True History and Name List of the Dakota 38" from Indian Country Today:
Resources on the US-Dakota War from the Minnesota Historical Society: https://www.usdakotawar.org/
"Largest Mass Execution in US History: 150 Years Ago Today" from The Nation:
On the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890:
"Wounded Knee: Healing the Wounds of the Past" from Indian Country Today:
"Black Elk Speaks" by John G. Neihardt. Black Elk's firsthand account of the massacre begins on page 174 of the PDF:
"State senate urges inquiry into Wounded Knee Medals of Honor" from the Associated Press:
Sources for this blog post include: Coverage of these topics from Indian Country Today, Native News Online, CPR News, Smithsonian Magazine, the Sand Creek Massacre Foundation, The Nation, the Associated Press, the National Park Service, the US National Library of Medicine, National Geographic, and an interview with an elder from the Wounded Knee community on the Pine Ridge Reservation.
November is Native American Heritage Month!
Indigenous advocacy for a permanent, annual celebration of Native peoples began over one hundred years ago, with activists and organizations calling upon the federal government to honor Indigenous heritage throughout the early to mid-twentieth century. Finally, in 1976, a Senate Joint Resolution written by Jerry C. Elliott-High Eagle of the Osage and Cherokee Nations was signed into law, paving the way for federal recognition of Native American Heritage Month.
Elliott-High Eagle, a NASA physicist and Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient whose actions during the Apollo 13 Mission saved the lives of three astronauts, drafted the resolution in order to recognize the contributions of Indigenous people amidst the US bicentennial. He was inspired to pen the draft after receiving a vision on Sacred Mountain in South Dakota. The resolution, which authorized then-President Ford to designate one week in October as Native American Awareness Week, laid the foundation for the eventual declaration of November as Native American Heritage Month in 1990.
Pictured: Jerry C. Elliott-High Eagle, a retired NASA physicist of Cherokee and Osage heritage, authored the 1976 Senate Joint Resolution that paved the way for the federal recognition of Native American Heritage Month. Photo credits to Sooner Magazine.
In honor of Native American Heritage Month, a list of Native-led advocacy organizations and resources from the Indigenous perspective are included at the end of this newsletter. We will also continue to amplify stories and resources from Native organizations on our Facebook page throughout the month.
We would love to hear from our Tipi Raisers community: how do you plan to recognize and celebrate Native American Heritage Month?
Informative resources to explore in honor of Native American Heritage Month:
A collection of educational materials on Indigenous history and heritage for teachers
"Celebrating Native Americans Today and Everyday: Resources for Native American Heritage Month" from Cultural
Documentaries, short videos, and other media focused on Native American Heritage from PBS
Native-led organizations to follow during Native American Heritage Month and beyond:
National Congress of American Indians
American Indian College Fund
Native American Rights Fund
Sources for this blog post include: The Department of the Interior, Indian Country Today, Sooner Magazine, The Oklahoman, The Ford Library Museum, and an interview of Jerry C. Elliott-High Eagle by the American Institute of Physics
Reconciliation through Education: #NotInvisible- Amidst MMIW Erasure, Activists Shine a Light on the Crisis of Violence Against Native Women
Pictured: Mary Weasel Bear taking part in the MMIW Bike-Run USA 2021 in Kansas City to raise awareness for Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women (MMIW). Mary has recently been raising awareness in communities across the country about the MMIW crisis. Picture credits to Luke X. Martin and KCUR.
While missing persons cases involving white women often receive national attention, the stories of the more than 5,700 Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women (MMIW) across the country often remain overlooked by news media and law enforcement. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, Indigenous women in certain areas of the US are 10 times more likely to be kidnapped or murdered than any other demographic, and the perpetrators of these crimes often face no conviction.
Despite their increased risk of experiencing violence, Indigenous women who are missing or murdered receive significantly less media coverage than female white victims of violence, and there is still no official data count on the number of missing and murdered Indigenous women in the United States. This crisis also extends into Canada's Indigenous communities, and the term Missing and Murdered Indigenous Persons (MMIP) has been used to include the girls, men, and two-spirit Indigenous people affected by violence across the continent.
Pictured: The RV which traveled with the participants of the MMIW Bike-Run USA 2021. Written in red on the RV are the names of 319 Missing and Murdered Indigenous women, girls, and men. Our gratitude to Mary Weasel Bear for providing the picture.
In an effort to bring awareness to the violence and invisibility faced by MMIW, Duane Garvais Lawrence launched the second annual MMIW Bike-Run USA in mid-July of this year. Runners, cyclists, and supporters on the journey made their way from Washington state to the nation’s Capital, where the Bike-Run came to a close last Friday. We recently caught up with Mary Weasel Bear, who traveled with the Bike-Run from South Dakota to Washington D.C. She told us about her experience and the spirit of remembrance that motivates her to advocate for MMIW:
“For me, it's really important because I lost my friend.” Mary was inspired to join the cross-country bike-run in order to honor her friend Lakota Renville. Lakota was found murdered in 2005, and her name adorns the RV pictured above, alongside the names of many more victims of violence against Indigenous people. “I feel obligated to her mother to help find justice for my friend,” Mary said of her motivation to advocate for the investigation of Lakota’s case and the cases of all MMIW. She feels that if resources had been dedicated to finding her friend in the same way that they are devoted to the search for missing white women, Lakota may have been found sooner. Mary also biked in honor of her sister-in-law, Susan Fast Eagle-Chief Eagle, who has been missing from Rapid City, SD since May 2021.
Pictured: Mary Weasel Bear’s friend Lakota Renville, who was found murdered in Kansas City in 2005, and Mary’s sister-in-law, Susan Lacee Fast Eagle-Chief Eagle, who has been missing from Rapid City, SD since May 2021.
The federal government has recently undertaken efforts to address this crisis and begin tracking related data. Two bills signed into law in October 2020, Savanna's Act and the Not Invisible Act, aim to increase coordination between tribal, state, and federal law enforcement, to require the collection of data on MMIW, and to allocate more resources to tribal governments for the investigation of MMIW cases. Deb Haaland, US Secretary of the Interior and member of the Laguna Pueblo tribe, has also created a Missing & Murdered Unit (MMU) within the Bureau of Indian Affairs. But with so many cases continuing to go unsolved, under-investigated by law enforcement, and underreported in the media, activists have highlighted the importance of continued efforts to protect Native women and to raise public awareness around this issue.
As Mary Weasel Bear told us: “There’s 6,000 families out there wondering about their loved ones. It’s about time America wakes up and acknowledges it.” Thank you, Mary, for sharing your insight on this topic and for the work you are doing to advocate for MMIW.
Last week, we highlighted the MMIW Bike-Run on our social media channels and, in an effort to continue to bring awareness to this topic, we will be holding an online conversation with Mary Weasel Bear about MMIW on Wednesday, October 27th. Use this link to join or to call in: 1 669 900 6833 Use Passcode: 873683
Additional resources on the MMIW crisis listed below.
On the current epidemic of violence against Indigenous people and the invisibility faced by MMIW/MMIP:
“#NotInvisible: Why are Native American women vanishing?” from The Associated Press:
“No one knows how many Native women are murdered each year. That makes deaths hard to stop.” from NBC News: https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/no-one-knows-how-many-indigenous-women-are-murdered-each-n1277565
“As Petito case captivates U.S., missing Native women ignored” from Reuters:
"Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women & Girls," a report from the Urban Indian Health Institute on the MMIW crisis and institutional practices that make them invisible in life, in the media, and in data:
On the MMIW-Bike-Run USA 2021, which came to a close last Friday:
“MMIW relay passes through Rosebud on way to Washington” from Indian Country Today:
"Native American Runners Honor A Kansas City Murder Victim On Their Months-Long Journey To D.C." from KCUR: https://www.kcur.org/news/2021-09-23/native-american-runners-honor-a-kansas-city-murder-victim-on-their-months-long-journey-to-d-c
Organizations leading the way for change in the ongoing MMIW crisis:
Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women USA https://mmiwusa.org/
Coalition to Stop Violence Against Native Women https://www.csvanw.org/mmiw
Not Our Native Daughters https://www.notournativedaughters.org/
Sovereign Bodies Institute https://www.sovereign-bodies.org/
Sources for this blog post include: Coverage of this topic from The Spokesman-Review and Native News Online, PBS Newshour, NBC News, Reuters, and the Department of the Interior, as well as statistics shared by the Department of Justice and Native Women's Wilderness
Reconciliation through Education: In the Face of Erasure and Injustice, Indigenous People Remain Resilient
Pictured: The South Dakota State Capitol in Pierre, SD. Pierre will be the site of one of four public hearings set to take place throughout the spring on the newly proposed social studies standards. Photo credits to The Mitchell Republic
While Native representation in media has slowly grown in recent years, erasure and invisibility in classrooms and beyond continue to marginalize Indigenous people and cloud the public understanding of the truth surrounding our shared histories.
In a set of social studies standards released on August 6th, officials of South Dakota's Department of Education omitted over a dozen learning objectives related to the Oceti Sakowin that had been proposed by a working group ten days prior. The Oceti Sakowin, or Seven Council Fires, refers to the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota peoples Indigenous to the Dakotas and the surrounding region. The erasure of Indigenous history is an issue in school districts across the country: a 2019 report on Native education by the National Congress of American Indians revealed that less than half of the 28 states surveyed require that Native education curricula be taught in K-12 schools.
In a letter sent to South Dakota Governor Kristi Noem by the Oglala Sioux Tribe following the release of the standards, Tribal President Kevin Killer stated "Our children, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous, deserve an education that does not shy away from the ugly realities in this country's history or the perspectives of peoples of color who have too long been marginalized."
Pictured: Alaska Native Lizzie Chimiugak Nenguryarr (center), the first person to be counted in the 2020 census. Photo credits to Claire Harbage/NPR
Despite these efforts to erase Indigenous people and their histories, recently released data from the 2020 US Census revealed that the Native population is at its largest size in modern times. Experts have identified several factors potentially contributing to the rise in the Native population, including changes to the census questionnaire, an increase in the number of mixed-race families, effective outreach campaigns, and a rise in Latino individuals identifying with their Indigenous heritage. This census data is likely to impact state legislative and congressional redistricting processes, as well as the allocation of federal funds for services and programs in Native communities.
Though the increase in population was celebrated by Native-led organizations, advocates and officials have also expressed that Indigenous people were likely undercounted in the census. It is estimated that 1 in 3 Indigenous people live in hard-to-count US census tracts, and Native people living on reservations and in Alaska Native communities have been historically underrepresented in census data as a result of various factors including economic hardship, lack of telephones, and rural locations.
(Pictured: Colorado Governor Jared Polis signs executive orders rescinding two 157-year-old proclamations on August 17th in Denver, alongside Tribal leaders, youth, and representatives. Photo credits to Rebecca Slezak, The Denver Post)
As the Indigenous population grows, so too do the calls to address the historical and present-day injustices committed against Native communities. Colorado Governor Jared Polis signed executive orders on August 17th rescinding two 1864 proclamations which had called for forced relocation and violence against Indigenous people in the state. The proclamations, issued 157 years ago by then-territorial Governor John Evans, required “friendly” Indigenous people in Colorado to relocate to designated camps, and authorized Colorado settlers to steal from and “kill and destroy” any Native people they deemed hostile.
Evans' proclamations later incited the Sand Creek Massacre of November 1864, in which US soldiers attacked a Cheyenne and Arapaho village in southeast Colorado and killed hundreds of Indigenous people- primarily women, children, and the elderly. Indigenous leaders who attended the signing of the recent executive orders expressed that government responsibility for past injustices is an important step in the healing process. However, they also highlighted the need for more efforts towards redress and reconciliation, such as the renaming of Mount Evans.
Additional resources on the recently released South Dakota social studies standards, the increase in the Native population identified in the 2020 Census, and Governor Polis' August 17th executive orders listed below.
On the erasure of the Oceti Sakowin from South Dakota social studies standards:
"South Dakota Department of Education contributes to 'Native erasure' in new social studies standards" from Native News Online:
A letter from the Oglala Sioux Tribe to SD Governor Kristi Noem in opposition to the erasure of Indigenous history from state curricula: https://www.facebook.com/withkevwecan/posts/10158402733663174
"Becoming Visible," a report from the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) and Illuminative on current efforts towards Native Education across the US: https://www.ncai.org/policy-research-center/research-data/prc-publications/NCAI-Becoming_Visible_Report-Digital_FINAL_10_2019.pdf
On the 2020 Census and the increase in the Native population:
"Native American population jumps to largest size in modern history" from Axios: https://www.axios.com/census-native-american-alaska-population-surges-1be8eef6-d09f-4249-86b0-7bf8cfbfc801.html
"Why the jump in the Native American population may be one of the hardest to explain" from CNN:
An overview of the importance of the census for Indigenous communities and the challenges to accurately counting the Native population from the NCAI:
On the 1864 proclamations recently rescinded via executive order by Colorado Governor Jared Polis:
"Colorado governor rescinds proclamations that led to Sand Creek Massacre" from the Colorado Sun:
"Colorado governor voids 1864 order to kill Natives" from Indian Country Today:
"Colorado Experience: Sand Creek Massacre," a one-hour documentary from PBS on the history of Evans' proclamations and the Sand Creek Massacre, available to watch for free at the following link:
Sources for this newsletter include: Coverage of these topics from Indian Country Today, Native News Online, Axios, the Associated Press, CNN, NPR, Colorado Public Radio, the Colorado Sun, the National Park Service, the Argus Leader, US News, the National Congress of American Indians, and USA Today, as well as a 2017 report on hard-to-count census tracts from the University of New Hampshire and recent statements on the erasure of Native people from SD educational standards from NDN Collective and the Oglala Sioux Tribe.
Pictured Above: A demonstrator holds a sign outside of Progressive Field in protest of the Cleveland team name on July 24, 2020. Photo credits to David Petkiewicz and Cleveland .com
State legislatures, professional sports teams, and public schools across the country have recently been reckoning with the harm caused by offensive Native mascots. In Colorado, years of advocacy by the Ute, Southern Ute, and Northern Arapaho nations led to the June enactment of SB21-116, a bill banning the use of Native mascots in the state’s public schools. In Ohio, the July 23rd announcement by Cleveland’s Major League Baseball team that they will be changing their name to the Cleveland Guardians was commended by the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) as a step forward in educating the public on this topic. And in the nation’s capital, the Washington Football team recently confirmed that they will not be choosing a mascot with Native-related imagery in the wake of the summer 2020 retirement of their previous offensive mascot. This progress follows years of academic research on the detrimental impact of Native mascots and decades-long efforts from advocacy groups and Indigenous activists like Suzan Harjo (Hodulgee Muscogee and Cheyenne), Crystal Echo Hawk (Pawnee), and Amanda Blackhorse (Diné) to retire such mascots.
Studies have shown that Native mascots have a number of negative effects on Indigenous people and, in particular, on Indigenous youth. These effects include low self-esteem, depression, a decreased sense of community worth, and increased stress levels. The same studies have also shown that the mascots contribute to negative stereotypes of Indigenous populations amongst non-Native people and make it more difficult to build positive cross-cultural relationships. The negative impact of caricatured sports mascots is further magnified by the stark lack of Indigenous representation in other media.
While the NCAI has identified over 1,800 k-12 schools across the country which still have a Native mascot, activists and Native advocacy groups have expressed their hope that the recent mascot bans and name changes are a step in the right direction towards the removal of dehumanizing Native mascots and towards an increase in the visibility of Indigenous people through more accurate and positive representation.
Pictured Above: A graphic from Illuminative’s Change the Story initiative.
Last week, we spoke to Gen7 youth Exodus to hear his thoughts as an Indigenous young person on mascots and the importance of positive Native representation. Exodus expressed support for the Colorado legislature’s recent ban on Native mascots in the state's public schools, as he feels the mascots make fun of how Indigenous people historically lived and dressed. "That's setting a bad view to us and our sacred lands," he said of the mascots. When asked about his thoughts on Indigenous representation, Exodus stated that he would like to see more positivity and respect towards Native people. We offer him our gratitude for sharing his insight on this topic with us!
Additional resources on Native mascots, their harmful effects, and the ongoing movement to retire them listed below.
A Time Magazine interview with Adrienne Keene (Cherokee) on the history and impact of Native mascots: https://time.com/5866481/native-american-mascots/
A documentary which analyzes the derogatory Washington Football Team name and discusses the appropriation of Native cultures. Available on Kanopy with a university login or public library card for participating colleges, universities, and libraries: https://www.kanopy.com/product/more-word
Research on the harmful effects of Native mascots:
A 2008 study on the psychological effects of Native mascots by Stephanie A. Fryberg, Hazel Rose Markus, Daphna Oyserman, and Joseph M. Stone: http://www.indianmascots.com/fryberg--web-psychological_.pdf
A summary, created by Illuminatives, of a recent study on the relationship between Native American identity and attitudes toward Native mascots:
On recent name changes and bans on Native mascots:
“The long road to a reckoning on racist team names” from Vox:
“Indigenous parents explain why Cleveland Guardians name change means so much” from Today:
“Washington NFL Team says no Native-themed mascot” from Indian Country Today:
A summary of Colorado SB21-116: https://leg.colorado.gov/bills/sb21-116
Organizations leading the movement to remove dehumanizing Native Mascots:
The National Congress of American Indians: https://www.ncai.org/proudtobe
No More Native Mascots: http://www.nomorenativemascots.org/
Change the Mascot: https://www.changethemascot.org/
Pictured above: A demonstrator at a 2014 march in Minneapolis in protest of the name of the Washington Football Team. Photo credits to Fibonacci Blue.
Sources for this blog post include: Coverage of this topic from Indian Country Today, The Denver Post, The Casper Star-Tribune, the Associated Press, Vox, Today, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) National School Mascot Tracking Database, a 2020 study from Laurel R. Davis-Delano, Joseph P. Gone & Stephanie A. Fryberg, 2008 academic journal article from Stephanie A. Fryberg, Hazel Rose Markus, Daphna Oyserman, and Joseph M. Stone, and resources from the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)
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