PRESS & MEDIA
PRESS & MEDIA
In 1971, Elton John and Bernie Taupin wrote “Indian Sunset,” a song about a young warrior in the latter part of the 18th century who was slowly watching his “People being crushed” – as the Europeans and new Americans inexorably and overwhelmingly moved across and invaded the continent. The song follows the warrior, on horseback, and his small family as they see the bison disappear, their People lose hope and pride and their way of life become overrun by the wave of invaders coming to chase “hills of gold.” He searches for his ancestors’ help, his chiefs and the lands that give healing water. The song makes clear the desperation, futility and crushing of the Soul that must have been evident for some – and certainly were for the protagonist of the song – during this time in history.
It is not the first time – and clearly won’t be the last – that a People, a warrior and his family, a way of life and a culture have been threatened by an invasion, another tribe, a Power or a change in history. Natural occurrences have also shifted and threatened humanity, and indeed all living life, in similarly cataclysmic ways for thousands . . . . even millions, of years.
The current pandemic, which stubbornly persists, could arguably be seen as a possible harbinger of similar times. In the same way, and almost inconceivably, there are reasonable arguments now being made in this modern time, that a second American Civil War is . . . . . conceivable (not likely perhaps, but . . . . conceivable?!). Melting glacier shelves, virtual infernos that are anything but virtual, Texas-sized “islands” of toxic plastic floating in the middle of the planet . . . . perhaps this is the sort of seemingly unstoppable destruction and finality that the warrior saw in that Indian Sunset.
Wise Elders from Indigenous Peoples all over the planet used to guide their People through times like this with hard-earned and time-tested wisdom. Lakota wisdom. Navajo wisdom. Hopi wisdom. Aboriginal wisdom. Minoan, Inuit, Caucasus, Saami, Mayan, Mbenga, Bedouin wisdom. From all over the world. From all races. From every corner of the globe. The wisdom from each of our ancient ancestors was available to guide and inform those who were – and are – willing to listen.
We are approaching two years of exceptionally challenging times for many of our families, for the relatives, friends and volunteers with whom we work, play, ride and travel with – and, indeed, for our organization as a whole. How does a small non-profit with limited resources continue to carry out its already complicated and challenging mission when the volunteers that are its lifeblood are literally threatened by a pandemic? How does a community such as Ti Ikciya Pa Slata Pi (The Tipi Raisers) in the best of times navigate an effective way through the trauma, historical trauma, mistrust, remoteness and depth of need that are sometimes seemingly insurmountable hurdles to carrying out our goals and intentions? During a pandemic with its economic challenges and also a time when many of our long standing institutions and communities are now under attack, the mission becomes layered in even deeper levels of complexity and challenge.
And so, we have learned again to listen to Indigenous wisdom and to allow it to inform our modern reality. The Lakota have a word, “wowancin tanke,” that roughly translates into “perserverance”. A Lakota elder describing that word summons up the image of the bison turning to face the incoming blizzard, instead of running from it as the domesticated cow does.
Photo Credit: Barbara Edit (Gerlach) Photography
A Hopi storyteller tells of how the omnipresent crows circling their villages were the court jesters of the People, reminding them with their “Caw!! Caw!!” of the absurdity in which they were carrying on in their daily human lives.
The Papuan of New Guinea – and Indigenous Peoples from South America, Africa, Australia and other continents also – all taught their warriors through the scarification of their young men’s bodies -- of the value of struggle, sacrifice and connection to God, Spirit, the Unknowable.
The Christians, Buddhists, Native Americans and Indigenous Peoples from virtually every corner of the Earth taught about, knew and unfailingly rested on the foundation of disciplined, humble and consistent prayer – similarly through the burning of a wide variety of plants, incense, fire. Wocekiye, the Lakota call it (“crying out to the Sacred”); “Precatio”, the Christians call it; “Tefliah” (Hebrew); “Sodizon” (Navajo); “Inua” (Inuit).
Taupin and John wrote their beautiful and mournful song from their perspectives and understanding as English storytellers. And so, perhaps they miscalculated the perseverance, patience and resilience of the American Indians. From that perspective, their warrior gives his life and his People die. In reality, however, we know that was not how the story unfolded over time. Native American cultures and ways of life have, in fact, endured and will endure to inform and benefit the Modern World, as will most Indigenous teachings . . . . for those willing to listen and learn. In that way, history is written over generations, not in headlines and moments of time. It is more important than ever to pay homage to, and honor all ancestral wisdom. To trust in their truth and take comfort in their wisdom.
And so, as we look ahead to 2022, we envision navigating these difficult and challenging times - in community with you - and leaning into Indigenous wisdom from around the world to guide us.
There is much to look forward to in the year ahead! While a work in progress, our calendar is already filling up with Gen7 gatherings and with opportunities for all generations to be in service and community with one another. And we look with eager anticipation to share information with you - as we have it - about the development of a more accessible and sustainable infrastructure to support and expand our activities and services.
We are grateful for our community around the world - for your ongoing support – in the myriad of ways in which it is offered. For that too is a lesson from those who walked through difficult times in the past: We are so much stronger when we stay together in community and family.
Wishing you and yours peace and health in the New Year!
Waylon Belt riding Crazy Horse on 2018 Tipi Raiser's Ride
While joy and holiday merriment may define November and December for many, the season is accompanied by the anniversaries of several massacres against Native peoples and a spirit of somber remembrance for the Indigenous victims of violence at the hands of the US Government.
In Colorado, November 29th marked 157 years since the Sand Creek Massacre and a chance to reflect on the injustices, past and present, faced by Native communities.
Violence and discrimination against Indigenous people in Colorado territory had heightened in the months leading up to the 1864 massacre after then-territorial Governor John Evans made two proclamations calling for the forced relocation of tribes and the killing of any Indigenous person deemed “hostile” by settlers.
After moving to the land area designated by treaties, a camp of 750 Cheyenne and Arapaho people was attacked by Col. John Chivington and the Third Colorado Cavalry. The Cavalry killed hundreds in the encampment - primarily elders, women, and children - and committed countless other atrocities during the massacre.
In the days that followed, the troops responsible for the mass murder rode through the streets of Denver carrying body parts and stolen items, which were then displayed for years in Denver's City Hall. The loss of life at Sand Creek- including the killings of 13 Cheyenne chiefs, one Arapaho chief, and four Arapaho headmen - disrupted the passage of traditional knowledge and had a significant impact on Cheyenne and Arapaho cultural lifeways and social structures.
Pictured: A sign at the site of the Sand Creek Massacre in southeast Colorado. Photo credits to Quentin Young/Colorado Newsline.
Just as November brought forth reminders of the ongoing legacy of violence against Native peoples, the month of December also carries an obligation to reflect on the brutal history of massacres carried out by the federal government in Indigenous communities.
On December 26th, 1862, 38 Dakota men were hanged in Mankato, Minnesota - the largest mass execution in US History. The hangings were carried out in the aftermath of the US Dakota War of 1862. The conflict, which was precipitated by increased restriction of Dakota lands and the failure of the US Government to provide promised rations to the Dakota, had broken out following heightened violent interactions between Native people and white settlers across Minnesota. As casualties mounted on both sides and the 37-day war came to a close, 2,000 Dakota were taken into custody by U.S. Colonel Henry H. Sibley.
Trials for the captured Dakota were carried out by a US military commission over just 42 days from September to November 1862. 303 Dakota men were sentenced to death. Though President Lincoln commuted the death sentences of 265 warriors, stating “I could not afford to hang men for votes,” he ultimately approved of and ordered the execution of 38 Dakota men convicted by the commission.
Historians and legal experts have since criticized the military tribunals, citing language barriers, lack of access to defense counsel, and biased decision-making as factors which decreased the legitimacy of the proceedings. Two of the 38 individuals killed are now understood to have been executed by mistake. Two additional Dakota leaders were executed by federal order in 1865 for their roles in the US Dakota War; they are now remembered alongside the men hanged in 1862 as the Dakota 38 + 2.
Pictured: An 1884 painting by J. Thullen depicting the execution of the Dakota 38 in Mankato, Minnesota. Image credits to the Minnesota Historical Society and MPR News
December also calls to mind the painful legacy of the Wounded Knee Massacre.
Amid the Ghost Dance movement, broken treaties, and the assassination of Hunkpapa Lakota leader Sitting Bull by Indian Agency Police, Chief Spotted Elk and his band of Mniconjou Lakota sought refuge on the Pine Ridge Reservation in late December, 1890. The group were eventually intercepted and escorted by US Army troops to camp at Wounded Knee Creek on December 28th.
The next day, the Seventh Cavalry began to confiscate weapons from Spotted Elk’s band, and a gun was suddenly discharged. Soldiers then opened fire on the camp. Several soldiers fired Hotchkiss guns indiscriminately on the encampment; others chased and hunted down Lakota women and children fleeing the scene. At least 300 Lakota men, women, and children were killed during the massacre, including Spotted Elk. 20 of the US soldiers involved were awarded the Medal of Honor for their roles in the killing. The medals have yet to be revoked by the federal government to this day.
We spoke to an elder from the Wounded Knee community this week about the 1890 massacre and its lasting impact. “My ancestors couldn’t comprehend it…I still can’t,” he said of the violence. His great-great grandfather was wounded during the massacre but survived after taking refuge in a nearby canyon.
“The massacre itself has a generational trauma effect, which I saw in my elders before they passed on.” He explained that the mass killing at Wounded Knee sowed discord in the community and led to the near destruction of the Lakota language. He also expressed that the massacre contributed to the boarding school system, with authorities employing tactics of abuse and assimilation against Indigenous children in an effort to destroy the possibility of future resistance. But amidst this traumatic legacy, the elder emphasized prayer and the hope for the future he sees in the children of the community. He asked that people remember the children in their prayers on December 29th, the 131st anniversary of the massacre.
Above all, he wants to ensure that Wounded Knee 1890 is never forgotten:
“Remember Cankpe Opi Wakpala 1890.”
Above: An excerpt from Tom Hollow Horn's talk on the history of Wounded Knee, originally streamed on the Tipi Raisers Facebook page in summer 2020
Additional resources on the Sand Creek Massacre, the Dakota 38 +2, and the 1890 Massacre at Wounded Knee listed below.
On the Sand Creek Massacre:
"THIS DAY IN HISTORY: November 29, 1864 – 230 Cheyenne & Arapaho Massacred at Sand Creek" from Native News Online:
Resources from the Sand Creek Massacre Foundation: https://www.sandcreekmassacrefoundation.org/history
"Colorado Experience: Sand Creek Massacre," a one-hour documentary from PBS on the history of Evans' proclamations and the Sand Creek Massacre, available to watch for free at the following link:
On the execution of the Dakota 38 + 2:
"The Traumatic True History and Name List of the Dakota 38" from Indian Country Today:
Resources on the US-Dakota War from the Minnesota Historical Society: https://www.usdakotawar.org/
"Largest Mass Execution in US History: 150 Years Ago Today" from The Nation:
On the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890:
"Wounded Knee: Healing the Wounds of the Past" from Indian Country Today:
"Black Elk Speaks" by John G. Neihardt. Black Elk's firsthand account of the massacre begins on page 174 of the PDF:
"State senate urges inquiry into Wounded Knee Medals of Honor" from the Associated Press:
Sources for this blog post include: Coverage of these topics from Indian Country Today, Native News Online, CPR News, Smithsonian Magazine, the Sand Creek Massacre Foundation, The Nation, the Associated Press, the National Park Service, the US National Library of Medicine, National Geographic, and an interview with an elder from the Wounded Knee community on the Pine Ridge Reservation.
November is Native American Heritage Month!
Indigenous advocacy for a permanent, annual celebration of Native peoples began over one hundred years ago, with activists and organizations calling upon the federal government to honor Indigenous heritage throughout the early to mid-twentieth century. Finally, in 1976, a Senate Joint Resolution written by Jerry C. Elliott-High Eagle of the Osage and Cherokee Nations was signed into law, paving the way for federal recognition of Native American Heritage Month.
Elliott-High Eagle, a NASA physicist and Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient whose actions during the Apollo 13 Mission saved the lives of three astronauts, drafted the resolution in order to recognize the contributions of Indigenous people amidst the US bicentennial. He was inspired to pen the draft after receiving a vision on Sacred Mountain in South Dakota. The resolution, which authorized then-President Ford to designate one week in October as Native American Awareness Week, laid the foundation for the eventual declaration of November as Native American Heritage Month in 1990.
Pictured: Jerry C. Elliott-High Eagle, a retired NASA physicist of Cherokee and Osage heritage, authored the 1976 Senate Joint Resolution that paved the way for the federal recognition of Native American Heritage Month. Photo credits to Sooner Magazine.
In honor of Native American Heritage Month, a list of Native-led advocacy organizations and resources from the Indigenous perspective are included at the end of this newsletter. We will also continue to amplify stories and resources from Native organizations on our Facebook page throughout the month.
We would love to hear from our Tipi Raisers community: how do you plan to recognize and celebrate Native American Heritage Month?
Informative resources to explore in honor of Native American Heritage Month:
A collection of educational materials on Indigenous history and heritage for teachers
"Celebrating Native Americans Today and Everyday: Resources for Native American Heritage Month" from Cultural
Documentaries, short videos, and other media focused on Native American Heritage from PBS
Native-led organizations to follow during Native American Heritage Month and beyond:
National Congress of American Indians
American Indian College Fund
Native American Rights Fund
Sources for this blog post include: The Department of the Interior, Indian Country Today, Sooner Magazine, The Oklahoman, The Ford Library Museum, and an interview of Jerry C. Elliott-High Eagle by the American Institute of Physics
Reconciliation through Education: #NotInvisible- Amidst MMIW Erasure, Activists Shine a Light on the Crisis of Violence Against Native Women
Pictured: Mary Weasel Bear taking part in the MMIW Bike-Run USA 2021 in Kansas City to raise awareness for Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women (MMIW). Mary has recently been raising awareness in communities across the country about the MMIW crisis. Picture credits to Luke X. Martin and KCUR.
While missing persons cases involving white women often receive national attention, the stories of the more than 5,700 Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women (MMIW) across the country often remain overlooked by news media and law enforcement. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, Indigenous women in certain areas of the US are 10 times more likely to be kidnapped or murdered than any other demographic, and the perpetrators of these crimes often face no conviction.
Despite their increased risk of experiencing violence, Indigenous women who are missing or murdered receive significantly less media coverage than female white victims of violence, and there is still no official data count on the number of missing and murdered Indigenous women in the United States. This crisis also extends into Canada's Indigenous communities, and the term Missing and Murdered Indigenous Persons (MMIP) has been used to include the girls, men, and two-spirit Indigenous people affected by violence across the continent.
Pictured: The RV which traveled with the participants of the MMIW Bike-Run USA 2021. Written in red on the RV are the names of 319 Missing and Murdered Indigenous women, girls, and men. Our gratitude to Mary Weasel Bear for providing the picture.
In an effort to bring awareness to the violence and invisibility faced by MMIW, Duane Garvais Lawrence launched the second annual MMIW Bike-Run USA in mid-July of this year. Runners, cyclists, and supporters on the journey made their way from Washington state to the nation’s Capital, where the Bike-Run came to a close last Friday. We recently caught up with Mary Weasel Bear, who traveled with the Bike-Run from South Dakota to Washington D.C. She told us about her experience and the spirit of remembrance that motivates her to advocate for MMIW:
“For me, it's really important because I lost my friend.” Mary was inspired to join the cross-country bike-run in order to honor her friend Lakota Renville. Lakota was found murdered in 2005, and her name adorns the RV pictured above, alongside the names of many more victims of violence against Indigenous people. “I feel obligated to her mother to help find justice for my friend,” Mary said of her motivation to advocate for the investigation of Lakota’s case and the cases of all MMIW. She feels that if resources had been dedicated to finding her friend in the same way that they are devoted to the search for missing white women, Lakota may have been found sooner. Mary also biked in honor of her sister-in-law, Susan Fast Eagle-Chief Eagle, who has been missing from Rapid City, SD since May 2021.
Pictured: Mary Weasel Bear’s friend Lakota Renville, who was found murdered in Kansas City in 2005, and Mary’s sister-in-law, Susan Lacee Fast Eagle-Chief Eagle, who has been missing from Rapid City, SD since May 2021.
The federal government has recently undertaken efforts to address this crisis and begin tracking related data. Two bills signed into law in October 2020, Savanna's Act and the Not Invisible Act, aim to increase coordination between tribal, state, and federal law enforcement, to require the collection of data on MMIW, and to allocate more resources to tribal governments for the investigation of MMIW cases. Deb Haaland, US Secretary of the Interior and member of the Laguna Pueblo tribe, has also created a Missing & Murdered Unit (MMU) within the Bureau of Indian Affairs. But with so many cases continuing to go unsolved, under-investigated by law enforcement, and underreported in the media, activists have highlighted the importance of continued efforts to protect Native women and to raise public awareness around this issue.
As Mary Weasel Bear told us: “There’s 6,000 families out there wondering about their loved ones. It’s about time America wakes up and acknowledges it.” Thank you, Mary, for sharing your insight on this topic and for the work you are doing to advocate for MMIW.
Last week, we highlighted the MMIW Bike-Run on our social media channels and, in an effort to continue to bring awareness to this topic, we will be holding an online conversation with Mary Weasel Bear about MMIW on Wednesday, October 27th. Use this link to join or to call in: 1 669 900 6833 Use Passcode: 873683
Additional resources on the MMIW crisis listed below.
On the current epidemic of violence against Indigenous people and the invisibility faced by MMIW/MMIP:
“#NotInvisible: Why are Native American women vanishing?” from The Associated Press:
“No one knows how many Native women are murdered each year. That makes deaths hard to stop.” from NBC News: https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/no-one-knows-how-many-indigenous-women-are-murdered-each-n1277565
“As Petito case captivates U.S., missing Native women ignored” from Reuters:
"Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women & Girls," a report from the Urban Indian Health Institute on the MMIW crisis and institutional practices that make them invisible in life, in the media, and in data:
On the MMIW-Bike-Run USA 2021, which came to a close last Friday:
“MMIW relay passes through Rosebud on way to Washington” from Indian Country Today:
"Native American Runners Honor A Kansas City Murder Victim On Their Months-Long Journey To D.C." from KCUR: https://www.kcur.org/news/2021-09-23/native-american-runners-honor-a-kansas-city-murder-victim-on-their-months-long-journey-to-d-c
Organizations leading the way for change in the ongoing MMIW crisis:
Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women USA https://mmiwusa.org/
Coalition to Stop Violence Against Native Women https://www.csvanw.org/mmiw
Not Our Native Daughters https://www.notournativedaughters.org/
Sovereign Bodies Institute https://www.sovereign-bodies.org/
Sources for this blog post include: Coverage of this topic from The Spokesman-Review and Native News Online, PBS Newshour, NBC News, Reuters, and the Department of the Interior, as well as statistics shared by the Department of Justice and Native Women's Wilderness
Reconciliation through Education: In the Face of Erasure and Injustice, Indigenous People Remain Resilient
Pictured: The South Dakota State Capitol in Pierre, SD. Pierre will be the site of one of four public hearings set to take place throughout the spring on the newly proposed social studies standards. Photo credits to The Mitchell Republic
While Native representation in media has slowly grown in recent years, erasure and invisibility in classrooms and beyond continue to marginalize Indigenous people and cloud the public understanding of the truth surrounding our shared histories.
In a set of social studies standards released on August 6th, officials of South Dakota's Department of Education omitted over a dozen learning objectives related to the Oceti Sakowin that had been proposed by a working group ten days prior. The Oceti Sakowin, or Seven Council Fires, refers to the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota peoples Indigenous to the Dakotas and the surrounding region. The erasure of Indigenous history is an issue in school districts across the country: a 2019 report on Native education by the National Congress of American Indians revealed that less than half of the 28 states surveyed require that Native education curricula be taught in K-12 schools.
In a letter sent to South Dakota Governor Kristi Noem by the Oglala Sioux Tribe following the release of the standards, Tribal President Kevin Killer stated "Our children, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous, deserve an education that does not shy away from the ugly realities in this country's history or the perspectives of peoples of color who have too long been marginalized."
Pictured: Alaska Native Lizzie Chimiugak Nenguryarr (center), the first person to be counted in the 2020 census. Photo credits to Claire Harbage/NPR
Despite these efforts to erase Indigenous people and their histories, recently released data from the 2020 US Census revealed that the Native population is at its largest size in modern times. Experts have identified several factors potentially contributing to the rise in the Native population, including changes to the census questionnaire, an increase in the number of mixed-race families, effective outreach campaigns, and a rise in Latino individuals identifying with their Indigenous heritage. This census data is likely to impact state legislative and congressional redistricting processes, as well as the allocation of federal funds for services and programs in Native communities.
Though the increase in population was celebrated by Native-led organizations, advocates and officials have also expressed that Indigenous people were likely undercounted in the census. It is estimated that 1 in 3 Indigenous people live in hard-to-count US census tracts, and Native people living on reservations and in Alaska Native communities have been historically underrepresented in census data as a result of various factors including economic hardship, lack of telephones, and rural locations.
(Pictured: Colorado Governor Jared Polis signs executive orders rescinding two 157-year-old proclamations on August 17th in Denver, alongside Tribal leaders, youth, and representatives. Photo credits to Rebecca Slezak, The Denver Post)
As the Indigenous population grows, so too do the calls to address the historical and present-day injustices committed against Native communities. Colorado Governor Jared Polis signed executive orders on August 17th rescinding two 1864 proclamations which had called for forced relocation and violence against Indigenous people in the state. The proclamations, issued 157 years ago by then-territorial Governor John Evans, required “friendly” Indigenous people in Colorado to relocate to designated camps, and authorized Colorado settlers to steal from and “kill and destroy” any Native people they deemed hostile.
Evans' proclamations later incited the Sand Creek Massacre of November 1864, in which US soldiers attacked a Cheyenne and Arapaho village in southeast Colorado and killed hundreds of Indigenous people- primarily women, children, and the elderly. Indigenous leaders who attended the signing of the recent executive orders expressed that government responsibility for past injustices is an important step in the healing process. However, they also highlighted the need for more efforts towards redress and reconciliation, such as the renaming of Mount Evans.
Additional resources on the recently released South Dakota social studies standards, the increase in the Native population identified in the 2020 Census, and Governor Polis' August 17th executive orders listed below.
On the erasure of the Oceti Sakowin from South Dakota social studies standards:
"South Dakota Department of Education contributes to 'Native erasure' in new social studies standards" from Native News Online:
A letter from the Oglala Sioux Tribe to SD Governor Kristi Noem in opposition to the erasure of Indigenous history from state curricula: https://www.facebook.com/withkevwecan/posts/10158402733663174
"Becoming Visible," a report from the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) and Illuminative on current efforts towards Native Education across the US: https://www.ncai.org/policy-research-center/research-data/prc-publications/NCAI-Becoming_Visible_Report-Digital_FINAL_10_2019.pdf
On the 2020 Census and the increase in the Native population:
"Native American population jumps to largest size in modern history" from Axios: https://www.axios.com/census-native-american-alaska-population-surges-1be8eef6-d09f-4249-86b0-7bf8cfbfc801.html
"Why the jump in the Native American population may be one of the hardest to explain" from CNN:
An overview of the importance of the census for Indigenous communities and the challenges to accurately counting the Native population from the NCAI:
On the 1864 proclamations recently rescinded via executive order by Colorado Governor Jared Polis:
"Colorado governor rescinds proclamations that led to Sand Creek Massacre" from the Colorado Sun:
"Colorado governor voids 1864 order to kill Natives" from Indian Country Today:
"Colorado Experience: Sand Creek Massacre," a one-hour documentary from PBS on the history of Evans' proclamations and the Sand Creek Massacre, available to watch for free at the following link:
Sources for this newsletter include: Coverage of these topics from Indian Country Today, Native News Online, Axios, the Associated Press, CNN, NPR, Colorado Public Radio, the Colorado Sun, the National Park Service, the Argus Leader, US News, the National Congress of American Indians, and USA Today, as well as a 2017 report on hard-to-count census tracts from the University of New Hampshire and recent statements on the erasure of Native people from SD educational standards from NDN Collective and the Oglala Sioux Tribe.
Pictured Above: A demonstrator holds a sign outside of Progressive Field in protest of the Cleveland team name on July 24, 2020. Photo credits to David Petkiewicz and Cleveland .com
State legislatures, professional sports teams, and public schools across the country have recently been reckoning with the harm caused by offensive Native mascots. In Colorado, years of advocacy by the Ute, Southern Ute, and Northern Arapaho nations led to the June enactment of SB21-116, a bill banning the use of Native mascots in the state’s public schools. In Ohio, the July 23rd announcement by Cleveland’s Major League Baseball team that they will be changing their name to the Cleveland Guardians was commended by the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) as a step forward in educating the public on this topic. And in the nation’s capital, the Washington Football team recently confirmed that they will not be choosing a mascot with Native-related imagery in the wake of the summer 2020 retirement of their previous offensive mascot. This progress follows years of academic research on the detrimental impact of Native mascots and decades-long efforts from advocacy groups and Indigenous activists like Suzan Harjo (Hodulgee Muscogee and Cheyenne), Crystal Echo Hawk (Pawnee), and Amanda Blackhorse (Diné) to retire such mascots.
Studies have shown that Native mascots have a number of negative effects on Indigenous people and, in particular, on Indigenous youth. These effects include low self-esteem, depression, a decreased sense of community worth, and increased stress levels. The same studies have also shown that the mascots contribute to negative stereotypes of Indigenous populations amongst non-Native people and make it more difficult to build positive cross-cultural relationships. The negative impact of caricatured sports mascots is further magnified by the stark lack of Indigenous representation in other media.
While the NCAI has identified over 1,800 k-12 schools across the country which still have a Native mascot, activists and Native advocacy groups have expressed their hope that the recent mascot bans and name changes are a step in the right direction towards the removal of dehumanizing Native mascots and towards an increase in the visibility of Indigenous people through more accurate and positive representation.
Pictured Above: A graphic from Illuminative’s Change the Story initiative.
Last week, we spoke to Gen7 youth Exodus to hear his thoughts as an Indigenous young person on mascots and the importance of positive Native representation. Exodus expressed support for the Colorado legislature’s recent ban on Native mascots in the state's public schools, as he feels the mascots make fun of how Indigenous people historically lived and dressed. "That's setting a bad view to us and our sacred lands," he said of the mascots. When asked about his thoughts on Indigenous representation, Exodus stated that he would like to see more positivity and respect towards Native people. We offer him our gratitude for sharing his insight on this topic with us!
Additional resources on Native mascots, their harmful effects, and the ongoing movement to retire them listed below.
A Time Magazine interview with Adrienne Keene (Cherokee) on the history and impact of Native mascots: https://time.com/5866481/native-american-mascots/
A documentary which analyzes the derogatory Washington Football Team name and discusses the appropriation of Native cultures. Available on Kanopy with a university login or public library card for participating colleges, universities, and libraries: https://www.kanopy.com/product/more-word
Research on the harmful effects of Native mascots:
A 2008 study on the psychological effects of Native mascots by Stephanie A. Fryberg, Hazel Rose Markus, Daphna Oyserman, and Joseph M. Stone: http://www.indianmascots.com/fryberg--web-psychological_.pdf
A summary, created by Illuminatives, of a recent study on the relationship between Native American identity and attitudes toward Native mascots:
On recent name changes and bans on Native mascots:
“The long road to a reckoning on racist team names” from Vox:
“Indigenous parents explain why Cleveland Guardians name change means so much” from Today:
“Washington NFL Team says no Native-themed mascot” from Indian Country Today:
A summary of Colorado SB21-116: https://leg.colorado.gov/bills/sb21-116
Organizations leading the movement to remove dehumanizing Native Mascots:
The National Congress of American Indians: https://www.ncai.org/proudtobe
No More Native Mascots: http://www.nomorenativemascots.org/
Change the Mascot: https://www.changethemascot.org/
Pictured above: A demonstrator at a 2014 march in Minneapolis in protest of the name of the Washington Football Team. Photo credits to Fibonacci Blue.
Sources for this blog post include: Coverage of this topic from Indian Country Today, The Denver Post, The Casper Star-Tribune, the Associated Press, Vox, Today, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) National School Mascot Tracking Database, a 2020 study from Laurel R. Davis-Delano, Joseph P. Gone & Stephanie A. Fryberg, 2008 academic journal article from Stephanie A. Fryberg, Hazel Rose Markus, Daphna Oyserman, and Joseph M. Stone, and resources from the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)
Pictured Above: The Spirit of the Tsunka Wakan is the heart of the LakotaRide
In a typical year, the dust from the LakotaRide would now be settling. Riders would be gently easing back into the rhythms of their daily lives, processing the lessons learned on horseback and around the sacred circle, and taking time to reflect. But even amidst the postponement of the LakotaRide, the Spirit of the Tsunka Wakan Oyate (Horse Nation) and the commitment to reconciliation central to the Ride have continued to inspire us. Recently, Keeper of the Firewood Norbert "Nobby" Bell generously shared his experiences and knowledge of horses with us in honor of the LakotaRide:
“The Tsunka Wakan is a holy animal. It’s sacred,” said Bell of horses within the cultures of Plains tribes. The Horse, he explained, is sacred for its presence in the everyday lives of Indigenous people on the Plains. Horses originated millions of years ago in North America before spreading to Asia and Europe. After several millennia of extinction on their native continent, they quickly readapted to the land upon their reintroduction by the Spanish. Whether carrying riders and heavy loads across long distances, making hunting more efficient, participating in ceremonies, or guiding warriors in battle, horses played a crucial role in the history of tribes across the continent. Bell expressed that the role of the horse as a companion is still key to the Plains tribes, stating “Once you make that connection [with a horse], they’re your best friend for life.”
Nobby is a Northern Arapaho tribal elder living on Pine Ridge and has been working with horses his entire life. We offer him our gratitude for sharing this knowledge!
Pictured Above: The LakotaRide is first and foremost a Ride of Reconciliation
While the LakotaRide is rooted in horse medicine, it is also characterized by a dedication to the sacred work of reconciliation. On the LakotaRide - and during Tipi Raisers gatherings throughout the year - reconciliation takes many forms. It reveals itself in nightly circles as Native and non-Native people engage in honest dialogue, in warm meals eaten together after a long day riding through the Front Range, in the faces of Lakota elders who graciously share their wisdom and of volunteers who return year after year. Often, reconciliation hurts. It is a deep-seated and Spirit-fed obligation to one another, fulfilled through laughter, struggle, teaching, and learning, through speaking bravely and listening earnestly. It requires an unlearning of the whitewashed history so many of us have been taught, and calls us to learn the truth of our shared history from the Indigenous perspective.
While reconciliation in the Tipi Raisers context is centered on relationship-building, a nationwide conversation has recently been emerging around what a US government-led reconciliation initiative with Indigenous communities should look like.
Truth and reconciliation commissions have been implemented by over 40 countries since the mid-20th century with the purpose of addressing, documenting, and healing traumatic and unjust histories. The June announcement of an investigation into Native boarding schools by the US Department of the Interior has prompted some to compare the initiative with Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). The TRC, formed by the Canadian government in 2008, was tasked with investigating the history and ongoing effects of abuses committed against Indigenous children at the country's state and church-run residential schools. Some residential school survivors stated that the TRC’s 2015 presentation of its findings contributed to their journey towards healing, while other individuals and groups have since criticized the TRC’s efficacy and its failure to fully investigate mass graves at school sites.
A bill to establish a truth and reconciliation commission on Native boarding schools similar to Canada's TRC was introduced into the US House of Representatives in 2020 by then-congresswoman Deb Haaland (Laguna Pueblo), but has yet to move out of committee. Despite this delay on a congressional effort towards reconciliation, activists have expressed hope that the Department of the Interior’s investigation under now-Secretary Haaland’s leadership will begin to address the injustices of Native boarding schools in the US.
Additional resources on the role of horses in Indigenous cultures, reconciliation and more listed below.
Archives from a 2009-2013 exhibit at the National Museum of the American Indian on the history and significance of the Horse in Native cultures:
An article from The Conversation discussing restorative justice and the efficacy of truth commissions in over 40 countries worldwide:
On Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the criticisms it has faced:
The archived official website of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, including links to its official report and findings, exhibitions, and additional resources:
“'Cultural Genocide,' Truth and Reconciliation Commission Calls Residential Schools” from Indian Country Today
“Much work remains on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's 94 Calls to Action” from the National Post https://nationalpost.com/news/much-work-remains-on-the-truth-and-reconciliation-commissions-94-calls-to-action
On US-government led reconciliation initiatives in regards to Native Boarding Schools:
“Canada, US differ on boarding schools” from Indian Country Today
Full text of HR. 8420, the Truth and Healing Commission on Indian Boarding School Policy Act
On local reconciliation efforts in Colorado and beyond:
“Search for remains at Colorado’s Native American boarding schools to proceed slowly, respectfully” from the Denver Post https://www.denverpost.com/2021/07/25/colorado-indian-boarding-schools-remains-graves/
“Dawnland” - A documentary which follows Native and non-Native officials across Maine as they investigate the impact of harmful child welfare practices against Native children and engage in the first government-sanctioned truth and reconciliation commission (TRC) in the United States. Available with a PBS passport subscription here: https://www.pbs.org/video/dawnland-t0dsij/#
Pictured above: Reconciliation, one relationship at a time
Sources for this blog post include: the WoLakota Project, the National Museum of the American Indian, a recent statement from the Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition, the official Truth & Reconciliation Commission of Canada website, & coverage of truth and reconciliation efforts by Indian Country Today, the New York Times, The World, the Star Tribune, and NPR
Pictured Above: Mni Wiconi banner on display at the Sacred Stone Camp near Cannonball, ND in 2016
July 15th marked the 5th anniversary of a prayer run that brought the #NoDAPL movement into the public consciousness. On that date in 2016, Indigenous youth living in the Sacred Stone Camp at Standing Rock began a 2,000+ mile run from North Dakota to Washington D.C. to demand a stop to the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) by oil/gas company Energy Transfer Partners. The pipeline, which began operating in 2017, is opposed by Native water protectors and allies of the #NoDAPL movement for various reasons, including its high risk of polluting water sources for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and the communities in its path, its disturbance of sacred burial sites during construction, and its role in the larger climate crisis facing the world today.
United by the belief that Water is Life (Mni Wiconi in Lakota), the #NoDAPL movement began to grow throughout 2016 as water protectors came together at the Sacred Stone Camp on the Standing Rock Reservation. The camp, located near the site of DAPL construction, would eventually become the largest gathering of Indigenous nations in modern American history. Following months of demonstrations at the camp and across the nation, construction of the pipeline was briefly halted by the federal government in December 2016. However, an executive order by then-President Trump rebooted the DAPL project and led to its completion in mid-2017.
There were at least five leaks from the DAPL during its first six months of operation, and though the pipeline is currently under environmental review by the Army Corps of Engineers, oil continues to flow through it today. As a result, Lakota youth leaders recently announced plans for another youth run to demand a full shutdown of the DAPL by President Biden.
Pictured Above: Oceti Sakowin Youth completing their 3-week journey while running to the headquarters of the Army Corps of Engineers in Washington D.C. in August 2016. Photo by Juliana Britto Schwartz
Bobbi Jean Three Legs, who helped organize the 2016 run to DC, joined the Tipi Raisers and Colorado Young Leaders for the Inspiring Action Speaker series earlier this year to share her experiences living at the Sacred Stone Camp and organizing the run. Three Legs, Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (Hunkpapa Oyate), was inspired to become a water protector after imagining what it would be like if there was no clean water to give to her young daughter. She continues to organize youth in her community around efforts to protect their land and water (Inspiring Action Speaker Series with Bobbi Jean Three Legs).
As we continue to commemorate five years since the height of the #NoDAPL movement throughout the fall and winter, stay tuned for future Reconciliation through Education newsletters on this topic.
More resources on Standing Rock listed below.
A comprehensive history of the events at Standing Rock from the Reclaiming Native Truth project:
A reflection by Sacred Stone Camp founder LaDonna Brave Bull Allard on the past and present desecration of Indigenous land, water, and life at the hands of government officials and extractive industries:
On Indigenous resistance at Standing Rock and the environmental and cultural concerns surrounding pipelines:
“Tribes Across North America Converge at Standing Rock, Hoping to be Heard” A report from PBS NewsHour
“The Standing Rock resistance and our fight for Indigenous rights” A TED Talk from Tribal Attorney Tara Houska, Couchiching First Nation https://youtu.be/wD3-6JIUF7M
On the Indigenous youth activism that inspired the movement and continues to create change today:
“The Youth Group that Launched a Movement at Standing Rock” from the New York Times
“Native Youth Deliver Petition Against Pipeline to White House” from Colorlines
“Standing Rock Lakota youth announce 93-mile relay run calling for Biden to shut down Dakota Access Pipeline” from Indian Country Today https://indiancountrytoday.com/the-press-pool/standing-rock-lakota-youth-announce-93-mile-relay-run-calling-for-biden-to-shut-down-dakota-access-pipeline
Pictured above: The Dakota Access Pipeline as seen from New Salem, ND
Sources for this blog post include: Colorlines, NBC, The New York Times, the Reclaiming Native Truth project, The Intercept, and Indian Country Today
The recent discoveries of mass graves at several Canadian residential school sites have prompted discussions around the painful history of boarding schools for Native children in the United States. Beginning in the 19th century, children at the over 367 Native boarding schools run by government and religious officials in the US often faced abuse and neglect (Seattle Times). Many of these schools remained in operation until the 1990s, and around 70 Native boarding schools are still operating today. A 1928 report ordered by the Department of the Interior found that death rates for Indigenous children in boarding schools were around 6 times higher than the average death rate for other ethnicities (NARF- Meriam Report). A new initiative announced in June by Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland aims to identify boarding schools, locate burial sites, and coordinate with tribes to repatriate the remains of the children buried in mass graves.
While the stories of boarding school survivors are often horrifying, we believe they are necessary to hear if we are to begin reconciling this history.
More resources on this topic listed below.
Pictured Above: Fort Lewis College, with origins as an "Indian Boarding School", display
Last week our Gen7 Youth Leadership group stayed at Fort Lewis College in Durango, CO. We visited a display on campus chronicling the history of the school - which started as a military fort and then became an "Indian Boarding School". The school acknowledges that the display is white-centered and has a plan to replace it in a way that more accurately reflects the real history.
The school offers free tuition to qualified Native American students which make up 26% of all degrees awarded at the school. "In 1911, the fort's property and buildings in Hesperus were transferred to the state of Colorado to establish an "agricultural and mechanic arts high school." That deed came with two conditions: that the land would be used for an educational institution, and was “to be maintained as an institution of learning to which Indian students will be admitted free of tuition and on an equality with white students” in perpetuity (Act of 61st Congress, 1911). Both conditions have been the Fort Lewis school's missions and guides over the past century". Source: https://www.fortlewis.edu/about-flc/history
Pictured Above: Chiricahua Apache students four months after arriving at the Carlisle Indian School.
Account from Lakota tribal member, Walter Little Moon, of his experiences at various boarding schools: https://listen.sdpb.org/post/boarding-school-memories-haunt-lakota-man?fbclid=IwAR02uWcBrwYM-50yMH4t-Yje6qvn8k2ZjP10BCydscVEk3aGbrUg6ebG63w
On the history and lasting effects of boarding schools in the United States:
“Death by Civilization” from Mary Annette Pember for the Atlantic
“American Indian Boarding Schools Haunt Many” Part 1 of a story from NPR
"American Indian School a Far Cry from the Past" Part 2 of a story from NPR
On the recent discoveries of mass graves at Kamloops and other residential school sites around Canada:
"How Some Children at the Kamloops Residential School Died"- Source: CBC News
On truth, reconciliation, reparations, and the recently announced federal initiative to investigate boarding schools:
“Interior Secretary Deb Haaland Announces Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative to Shed Light on Dark History of the Boarding School System”
“U.S. Boarding Schools Were The Blueprint For Indigenous Family Separation In Canada” an interview and article from NPR
A list of books on this topic, primarily by Indigenous authors, can be found at this link:
Pictured above: students at the Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial School in Michigan, circa 1910
A Lakota elder who speaks to our groups teaches us that reconciliation is "moving toward our own divinity" and that is where you will find forgiveness. Other – more traditional – definitions would say that it is simply about moving on after a disagreement. This is complex work with no agreed-upon definitions. It is wrought with generations of trauma from broken treaties, attempted genocide, overt racism and white guilt. We approach it with humility, curiosity and a deeply held conviction to get it right over time.
Our Reconciliation through Education newsletter seeks to engage us all in the work of reconciliation by deconstructing misconceptions, illuminating truths, and guiding us toward a deeper understanding of the shared history between Native and non-Native people.
It is only in understanding this history that we may begin to reconcile it. We invite you all to join us in this space as we discuss and share resources on various historical, cultural, and current events topics. We also invite you to follow along on our Facebook page each Friday as we continue to share out some of our Reconciliation through Education topics and resources - and check out our previous Friday posts if you have not already!
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